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Parallel FORTRAN User Guide

Version 2.1.3 - November 1990
578 Pages

© 3L Ltd


frontcover 3L Parallel FORTRAN User Guide

Intended Audience

This User Guide accompanies 3L's Parallel Fortran product, and is intended for anyone who wants to use Parallel Fortran to program a transputer system, whether writing a conventional sequential program or using the full support for concurrency which the transputer processor has to offer.

Hardware Assumptions

Parallel Fortran can be used with a large variety of target transputer systems. This manual makes the simplifying assumption that the target hardware will be an Inmos IMS B004 transputer evaluation board, or a transputer system which is largely compatible with a B004. This board is a single plug-in card for the standard IBM PC bus, with one transputer and either 1MB or 2MB of RAM.

Similarly, the assumption is made here that the host computer for the B004 will be an IBM PC with a hard disk drive, or one of the many personal computers compatible with the original IBM machines.

Document Structure

There are five main divisions within this document, as follows:

  • Part I: Getting Started covers installing Parallel Fortran on your machine and verifying that it is operating correctly.
  • Part II: Tutorial introduces you to the operation of the compiler and the other tools supplied with Parallel Fortran. In particular, there are tutorial sections explaining parallelism on the transputer and the way in which this can be accessed from Parallel Fortran programs.
  • Part III: Language Reference contains a complete specification of the language accepted by the Parallel Fortran compiler. This is ANSI Fortran 77, with certain extensions which are described in this part.
  • Part IV: General Reference contains the detailed technical information which you will require to write sophisticated applications for the transputer using Parallel Fortran.
  • The appendices at the end of this manual contain supplementary information in a condensed form, such as tables of compiler error messages.

Further Reading

Although this User Guide does include a complete description of Fortran 77, readers who are unfamiliar with this language are advised to consult one of the many introductory texts available.

In a similar way, the reader is assumed to be reasonably familiar with the operating system of the host computer being used. For personal computers made by IBM, this will usually be PC-DOS, which is supplied with a manual called Disk Operating System Reference[2].

For compatible machines made by other manufacturers, the operating system will usually be MS-DOS, described in Microsoft MS-DOS User's Reference[3]. These two operating systems are largely compatible, and their documentation is very similar. We will refer to "MS-DOS" in this manual to mean the operating system used on your machine. The term DOS Reference Manual will be used to refer to the appropriate manual.

References to these and other documents mentioned in this manual are collected in a bibliography, which can be found on page 541.


Throughout this manual, text printed in this typeface represents direct verbatim communication with the computer: for example, pieces of Fortran text, commands to MS-DOS and responses from the computer.

In examples, text printed in this typeface is not to be used verbatim: it represents a class of items, one of which should be used. For example, this is the format of the Fortran ASSIGN statement:

ASSIGN label TO int

This means that the statement consists of:

  1. The word 'ASSIGN', typed exactly like that.
  2. A label: not the word 'label', but something which the accompanying description explains.
  3. The word 'TO', typed exactly like that.
  4. An int: once again, the accompanying description explains what this is.

In examples, it is sometimes necessary to indicate exactly where there is a space, or how many spaces are present. In these cases, we represent a space by the symbol 'space'.


		Intended Audience
		Hardware Assumptions
		Document Structure
		Further Reading

I Getting Started

1	Installing the Compiler

2	Confidence Testing

II Tutorial

3	Developing Sequential Programs
	3.1	Editing
	3.2	Compiling
	3.3	Linking
		3.3.1	Linking More than One Object File
		3.3.2	Indirect Files
		3.3.3	Calling the Linker Directly
		3.3.1	Libraries
	3.4	Running
		3.4.1	Using Fortran Programs as MS-DOS Commands
		3.4.2	I/O Units, Redirection and Piping
	3.5	Memory Use
		3.5.1	Default Memory Mapping
		3.5.2	Alternative Memory Mapping
		3.5.3	Limit on Program Memory
	3.6	Accessing MS-DOS Functions

4	Introduction to Parallel Fortran
	4.1	Abstract Model
	4.2	Hardware Realisation
	4.3	Software Model
	4.4	Multiple Input Channels
	4.5	Parallel Execution Threads
	4.6	Configuring an Application
	4.7	Processor Farms

5	Developing Parallel Programs
	5.1	Configuring One User Task
		5.1.1	Hardware Configuration
		5.1.2	Software Configuration
		5.1.3	Building the Application
	5.2	More than One User Task
		5.2.1	Inter-Task Communication Functions
	5.3	Building Multi-Task Systems
	5.4	Multi-Transputer Systems
	5.5	Multi-Channel Input
		5.5.1	The ALT Functions
	5.6	Multi-Threaded Tasks
		5.6.1	Threads versus Tasks
	5.7	Debugging
	5.8	Estimating Memory Requirements

6	Global Input/Output
	6.1	One Transputer
	6.2	More than One Transputer
	6.3	More than One Multiplexer
	6.4	Limits
	6.5	Termination of an Application

7	Processor Farms
	7.1	The Worker Task
	7.2	The Master Task
	7.3	The NET Package
		7.3.1	F77_NET_SEND and F77_NET_RECEIVE
	7.4	Building the Application
		7.4.1	Configuration File
	7.5	Running the Example
	7.6	Heterogeneous Networks

III Language Reference


8	Fundamentals
	8.1	Character Set
	8.2	Program Structure
	8.3	Program Unit Structure
		8.3.1	Lines
		8.3.2	Statements
		8.3.3	Statement Labels
		8.3.4	Categories of Statement
		8.3.5	Order of Statements and Lines
	8.4	Names

9	Data
	9.1	Data Values and Types
	9.2	Constants, Variables, and Arrays
		9.2.1	Constants
		9.2.2	Symbolic Constants
		9.2.3	Variables
		9.2.4	Arrays
		9.2.5	Character Substrings
	9.3	Type Specification
		9.3.1	Predefined Specification
		9.3.2	The IMPLICIT Statement
		9.3.3	The IMPLICIT NONE Statement
		9.3.4	The IMPLICIT UNDEFINED Statement
		9.3.5	Explicit Type Specification Statements
		9.3.6	The PARAMETER Statement

10	Storage of Data
	10.1	Storage Requirements
		10.1.1	Constants and Variables
		10.1.2	Arrays
		10.1.3	Character Storage
	10.2	Allocation of Storage
		10.2.1	General Considerations
		10.2.2	The DIMENSION Statement
		10.2.3	The COMMON Statement
		10.2.4	The EQUIVALENCE Statement
	10.3	Assignment of Initial Values
		10.3.1	The DATA Statement
		10.3.2	Block Data Subprogram

11	Expressions
	11.1	Arithmetic Expressions
		11.1.1	Arithmetic Elements
		11.1.2	Arithmetic Operators and Parentheses
		11.1.3	Rules
		11.1.4	Order of Evaluation
		11.1.5	Examples of Arithmetic Expressions
		11.1.6	Determination of the Type of an Expression
		11.1.7	Integer Arithmetic
		11.1.8	Arithmetic Constant Expressions
		11.1.9	Integer Constant Expressions
		11.1.10	Not-a-Number and Infinity
	11.2	Character Expressions
		11.2.1	Character Elements
		11.2.2	Character Operator and Parentheses
	11.3	Logical Expressions
		11.3.1	Logical Elements
		11.3.2	Relational Expressions
		11.3.3	Logical Operators and Parentheses
		11.3.4	Rules
		11.3.5	Order of Evaluation
		11.3.6	Examples of Relational and Logical Expressions

12	Assignment Statements
	12.1	Arithmetic Assignment Statements
	12.2	Logical Assignment Statements
	12.3	Character Assignment Statements

13	Control Statements
	13.1	GO TO Statements
		13.1.1	Unconditional GO TO
		13.1.2	Computed GO TO
		13.1.3	Assigned GO TO and ASSIGN Statements
	13.2	IF Statements
		13.2.1	Arithmetic IF
		13.2.2	Logical IF
		13.2.3	Block IF
	13.3	DO Loops
		13.3.1	DO Statements
		13.3.2	The DO WHILE Statement
		13.3.3	Terminal Statements
		13.3.4	Nested DO-Loops
		13.3.5	Transfer of Control in DO-Loops
	13.4	The CONTINUE Statement
	13.5	STOP Statements
	13.6	PAUSE Statements

14	Program Units and the Transfer of Control
	14.1	Procedures
		14.1.1	Differences between Function and Subroutine Subprograms
		14.1.2	Functions
		14.1.3	Subroutines
	14.2	Transfer of Control between Program Units
		14.2.1	Functions
		14.2.2	Subroutines
	14.3	Correspondence between Dummy and Actual Arguments
		14.3.1	Use of Constants and Expressions
		14.3.2	Use of Variables
		14.3.3	Use of Arrays and Array Elements
		14.3.4	Use of Functions and Subroutines as Arguments
		14.3.5	INTRINSIC Statement
	14.4	Transfer of Values between Program Units
		14.4.1	Common block items
		14.4.2	Dummy and Actual Arguments
	14.5	Multiple Entry into a Subprogram
		14.5.1	The ENTRY Statement
		14.5.2	Referencing an ENTRY Statement
		14.5.3	Entering the Subprogram
		14.5.4	Exit from the Subprogram
	14.6	The SAVE Statement
	14.7	The INCLUDE Statement

15	Format Specification
	15.1	Format Specifications
		15.1.1	Field Separators
		15.1.2	Slash Editing
		15.1.3	Repetition of Descriptors
	15.2	Format Specification Methods
		15.2.1	The FORMAT Statement
		15.2.2	Character Format Specification
		15.2.3	Effect of FORMAT Statements and Character Format Specifications
	15.3	Edit Descriptors
		15.3.1	Format (Conversion) Codes
		15.3.2	Colon Editing
		15.3.3	Default Field Widths
	15.4	Examples of Format Specification

16	Input and Output
	16.1	Introduction
		16.1.1	Format of Records
		16.1.2	Accessing Records
	16.2	Input/Output Statements
		16.2.1	Input/Output Lists
		16.2.2	Correspondence Between Input/Output Lists and Format Codes
		16.2.3	Implied DO-Loops
	16.3	Sequential Access Input and Output
		16.3.1	READ and WRITE Statements
		16.3.2	File Positioning Input/Output Statements
	16.4	Direct Access Input and Output
		16.4.1	READ and WRITE statements
		16.4.2	Formatted Direct Access Input and Output
		16.4.3	Unformatted Direct Access Input and Output
	16.5	List-Directed Input and Output
		16.5.1	The READ Statement
		16.5.2	Input Data
		16.5.3	Output Statements
		16.5.4	Output Data
	16.6	Namelist-Directed Input and Output
		16.6.1	The NAMELIST statement
		16.6.2	Input Statements
		16.6.3	Input Data
		16.6.4	Output Statements
		16.6.5	Output Data
		16.6.6	Example of Namelist-Directed I/O
	16.7	Internal Files
	16.8	Auxiliary Input/Output Statements
		16.8.1	Unit and File Connection
		16.8.2	The OPEN Statement
		16.8.3	The CLOSE Statement
		16.8.4	The INQUIRE Statement

IV General Reference

17	Fortran Compiler Reference
	17.1	Running the Compiler
	17.2	Compiler Switches
		17.2.1	Default switches
		17.2.2	Controlling Source Processing
		17.2.3	Controlling Output Files
		17.2.4	Controlling Object Code
		17.2.5	Controlling Debugging
		17.2.6	Controlling INCLUDE Processing
		17.2.7	Controlling the Format of the Listing
		17.2.8	Information from the Compiler
		17.2.9	Controlling the Compiler's Buffer Sizes
		17.2.10	Obsolescent Switches
	17.3	Handling of INCLUDE Files
	17.4	Data-Type Representations
	17.5	Data File Formats
	17.6	Fortran Error Messages
		17.6.1	Syntax Errors
		17.6.2	Code Generator Errors
		17.6.3	Fatal Errors
		17.6.4	Run-Time Errors

18	The Parallel Fortran Run-Time Library
	18.1	Purpose of the Run-Time Library
	18.2	Non-Intrinsic Subprograms
		18.2.1	Conventions
		18.2.2	The DOS Package
		18.2.3	The THREAD Package
		18.2.4	The SEMA Package
		18.2.5	The TIMER Package
		18.2.6	The CHAN Package
		18.2.7	The NET Package
		18.2.8	The ALT Package
		18.2.9	Compatibility Subroutines
		18.2.10	Miscellaneous

19	The Linker
	19.1	Command Line
	19.2	File Name Conventions
	19.3	The Output File
	19.4	Indirect Files
	19.5	Libraries
	19.6	The Executable Image
	19.7	Map Files
	19.8	Debug Tables
	19.9	Summary of Switches
	19.10	Using Batch Files
	19.11	Duplicate Definitions
	19.12	Messages

20	The mempatch Utility
	20.1	Identifying mempatch
	20.2	Invoking mempatch
	20.3	Re-invoking mempatch

21	The decode Utility
	21.1	Usage
	21.2	Features of the decode Program
	21.3	Other Languages

22	The Worm Utility
	22.1	Notes

23	The trim Utility

24	The tunlib Utility

25	The fpr Utility

26	Configuration Language Reference
	26.1	Standard Syntactic Metalanguage
	26.2	Configuration Language Syntax
		26.2.1	Low Level Syntax
		26.2.2	Numeric Constants
		26.2.3	String Constants
		26.2.4	Identifiers
		26.2.5	Statements
		26.2.6	PROCESSOR Statement
		26.2.7	WIRE Statement
		26.2.8	TASK Statement
		26.2.9	CONNECT Statement
		26.2.10	PLACE Statement
		26.2.11	BIND Statement

27	Flood-Fill Configurer Reference
	27.1	User Task Protocol
		27.1.1	Master Task's Ports
		27.1.2	Worker Task's Ports
	27.2	Packet Format

28	Task Data Sheets


A	Distribution Kit
	A.1	Directory \tf2v1
	A.2	Directory \tf2v1\examples

B	Compatibility with T414A and T800A
	B.1	Problems with T414A
		B.1.1	Restriction on Message Lengths
		B.1.2	Problems with Timers
	B.2	Problems with T800A
		B.2.1	Floating-Point Conversion Problems
		B.2.2	Instruction Decode Problems

C	Building a Network
	C.1	Network Principles
	C.2	Network Requirements
		C.2.1	Requirements for Links
		C.2.2	Requirements for System Services
	C.3	Connecting a Network

D	Additional Language Features
	D.1	The ENCODE and DECODE statements
	D.2	The DEFINE FILE statement
	D.3	Record selection
	D.4	The FIND Statement

E	Intrinsic Functions
	E.1	ANSI Standard Intrinsic Functions
		E.1.1	Rounding
		E.1.2	Character Type Conversion
		E.1.3	Numeric Type Conversion
		E.1.4	Arithmetic
		E.1.5	Maximum and Minimum
		E.1.6	Complex Operations
		E.1.7	Exponential and Logarithms
		E.1.8	Trigonometrical Functions
		E.1.9	Trigonometrical Functions (Degree)
		E.1.10	Hyperbolic Functions
		E.1.11	Character Operations
		E.1.12	Lexical Character Comparisons
	E.2	Bit-Manipulation Functions
		E.2.1	Bitwise Logical Operations
		E.2.2	Single-Bit Functions
		E.2.3	Shift and Extract

F	Summary of Option Switches
	F.1	Compiler Switches
	F.2	Linker Switches
	F.3	afserver Switches

G	Syntax Error Messages

H	Linker Error Messages

I	Run-Time Error Messages
	I.1	General Input/Output Errors
	I.2	Run-Time Format Errors
	I.3	Errors Returned by afserver

J	Mandelbrot Program Listings
	J.1	Master Task
	J.2	Worker Task
	J.3	Command Packet Include File
	J.4	Results Packet Include File
	J.5	Flood Configuration File
	J.6	Static Configuration File

K	ASCII Code Chart


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Last modification: 13.06.2012 17:38:04