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KTM - Kria Transputer Machine


The KTM is nothing else (from the hardware perspective) than a [Kria KV260 Vision AI Starter Kit] from
xilinx logo

Claus Meder did most of the work for the KTM. His VHDL Transputer implementation is very mature and stable.
From where I know this? I have tested it extensively! For his FPU design he had the opportunity to look at Gavin Crate's VBC emulator. Thank you here too.

The following instructions are based on the Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS image for the Kria SOM and a newer boot firmware (2022.1_update3_BOOT.BIN).
We assume also a full updated base system before we start.

The instructions for creating the microSD card, connecting the cables (power, usb, network) and accessing the board are well documented and are therefore omitted here.

Many steps can be written more elegantly and conveniently. This is not my intention. People should consciously make changes and not just call a script. Nevertheless, please let me know if something is wrong or awkward. I'm a Linux rookie.

I wasn't satisfied with the fan control either, so I modified my board. Here are some pictures: Rework-1 Rework-2 Rework-3. This thermal solution have approx. 4K/W junction-air resistance. The SOM total power consumption is ~4W idle and ~5W under load. Similarities in color choices may be intentional.

To get an impression of the speed see: The "Hello World" Benchmark

What do you get at the end

ubuntu@kria:~$ rspy -m
  # Part  rt Link0 Link1 Link2 Link3 RAM@cycle
  0 T805G230  HOST   1-0   2-2   ... 4K@1,16380K@2;
  1 T805G230   0-1   2-0   3-1   ... 4K@1,16380K@2;
  2 T805G230   1-1   3-0   0-2   ... 4K@1,16380K@2;
  3 T805G230   2-1   1-2   ...   ... 4K@1,16380K@2;
ubuntu@kria:~$ icc
  icc : INMOS toolset C compiler
  INMOS C compiler Version 2.01.10 (built at 01:08:56 Jun 25 1991)

Usefull adoptions

If you have an SDXC MicroSD card V30/A2/U3 or faster

# The following change may also increased your read speed from 15MB/s to 58MB/s
cd /usr/lib/firmware/$(uname -r)/device-tree/xilinx
sudo dtc -I dtb -O dts -o kria.dts smk-k26-revA-sck-kv-g-revB.dtb
sudo nano kria.dts
# find no-1-8-v; -> #no-1-8-v;
sudo mv smk-k26-revA-sck-kv-g-revB.dtb smk-k26-revA-sck-kv-g-revB.dtb.orig
sudo dtc -O dtb -I dts -o smk-k26-revA-sck-kv-g-revB.dtb kria.dts
sudo flash-kernel
sudo reboot now

sudo dmesg | grep "mmc"
# mmc1: new ultra high speed SDR104 SDXC card at address 5048
sudo hdparm --direct -t /dev/mmcblk1
# Timing O_DIRECT disk reads: 178 MB in  3.03 seconds =  58.78 MB/sec

If you don't need the tracker stuff

sudo systemctl --global mask tracker-miner-fs-3.service
sudo systemctl --global mask tracker-xdg-portal-3.service

Copying the software

# download from

mkdir ~/
cd ~/
wget -r -np -nd -nv
wget -r -np -nd -nv
rm index.html* robots.txt*

# put .ko into the right place

sudo chmod 644 *.ko
sudo cp *.ko /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/kernel/drivers/uio/
rm *.ko

# put .so into the right place

sudo chmod 644 *.so.1.*
sudo mkdir -p $d
sudo cp *.so.* $d
for name in *.so.*; do sudo ln -s $d$name $d${*}.so.1; done
unset d
rm *.so.1.*

# put programs into the right place

sudo chmod 755 *
sudo mv * /usr/local/bin/
ls -l /usr/local/bin/

# set the environment

# add entry to /etc/environment
#   LD_LIBRARY_PATH="/usr/local/lib/aarch64-linux-gnu"

sudo nano /etc/environment

# cleanup

cd ~
rmdir ~/

Configure the system

# edit kernel cmdline (add "" when connecting with Vivado)
#   LINUX_KERNEL_CMDLINE="quiet splash mem=3840M"

sudo nano /etc/default/flash-kernel
sudo flash-kernel
sudo reboot now

# download PL

mkdir ~/
cd ~/
wget -r -np -nd -nv
rm index.html* robots.txt*

# prepare PL

pushd /usr/lib/firmware/xilinx
sudo mkdir kv260-Transputer
sudo cp k26-starter-kits/shell.json kv260-Transputer/
sudo mv ~/* kv260-Transputer/
ls -l kv260-Transputer/

# cleanup

cd ~
rmdir ~/

Prepare the system

# loading the PL

sudo xmutil unloadapp
sudo xmutil loadapp kv260-Transputer

# loading the driver

sudo insmod /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/kernel/drivers/uio/uio_linkaxl.ko
sudo chmod 666 /dev/uio4

Test it

export TRANSPUTER=''
rspy -l -e -f -t -m
poke -r 0x80000001 42
peek 0x80000000 -n 8

Load the firmware at startup

# replace k26-starter-kits with
#   kv260-Transputer

sudo nano /etc/dfx-mgrd/default_firmware

Load the driver automatically

# add entry to /etc/modules
#   uio_linkaxl

sudo nano /etc/modules
sudo depmod

# new entry to /etc/udev/rules.d/50-linkaxl-conf.rules
#   SUBSYSTEMS=="uio", ATTR{name}=="linkaxl", MODE="0666"

sudo nano /etc/udev/rules.d/50-linkaxl-conf.rules

Download the INMOS toolset

cd ~
wget -np -nd -nv
sudo mkdir -p $d
sudo unzip -d $d
for name in $d/itools/*.btl; do sudo chmod +x ${name%.btl}; done
unset d

Configure the INMOS toolset

# create /etc/profile.d/
#   # shellcheck shell=sh
#   export ISEARCH=/opt/inmos/d72uni/libs/
#   export ISERVER=$(which iserver)
#   export ITERM=/opt/inmos/d72uni/iterms/sun.itm
#   export IBOARDSIZE='#1000000'
#   export IDEBUGSIZE='#1000000'
#   export PATH=/opt/inmos/d72uni/itools:$PATH
#   export TRANSPUTER=''

sudo nano /etc/profile.d/
source /etc/profile.d/

Running the INMOS toolset

# create hello.c
#   #include <stdio.h>
#   int main( void ) {
#       printf( "Hello World!\n" );
#       return 0;
#   }

nano hello.c

icc hello.c -t9
ilink hello.tco -f startup.lnk -t9
icollect hello.lku -t -o hello.btl
$ISERVER -sb hello.btl

Get the INMOS toolset examples

# !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
# !!! still under construction !!!
# !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

git clone
git clone

What to do when a new kernel has been installed

You have to copy the uio_linkaxl.ko driver and the MicroSD speed will be switched back. See the steps above.

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Last modification: 2/23/2023 2:00:10 PM