|The Helios Installation Guide
|PERIHELION SOFTWARE LTD|
We are pleased that you have purchased Helios 1.3, and we hope that you will enjoy using it. Please read this part of the Helios documentation carefully, so that you will derive the maximum benefit from the product. This installation guide is divided into six sections, entitled:
Before you install Helios
The next step
Booting multiple processors
The helios directory structure
Helios version 1.3
We suggest that you read each section in turn. The section entitled The next step is further subdivided into two subsections: New users and Experienced users. Read the subsection which applies to you. We have tried to give sufficient information in this document for you to start using Helios 1.3. However, there are places where you will be redirected to other documents for supplementary information.
There should be a packing list in the Helios Operating System binder. Check that you have received all of the items listed. Contact your dealer immediately for assistance if any item is missing.
Before opening the disc envelope, read the terms and conditions of the software licence, which are printed on the envelope. This agreement is for the protection of the user and of the future of the Helios product.
A Helios licence provides cover for one copy of Helios on one computer. Unauthorised multiple copying of Helios is detrimental to product development, and it is illegal under the terms of the licence agreement. Although Helios can run on several hundred processors, the standard licence permits it to run on up to 20 processors in one machine. An additional licence is required for more than 20 processors.
Please complete and return your registration card as soon as possible. Only registered users are eligible for technical support and updates of DSL software.
If you have problems using Helios 1.3, DSL provides a technical support service. The details of this service are on the product registration card. On return of this card, DSL provides written and telephone support for the first 90 days, and written support only for the following 9 months. Registered users are offered an extended support contract with ‘hotline’ telephone support, news service and upgrade benefits.
To install the complete Helios package, you will need 4Mb of hard disc space. If your system has limited disc space, the online help system may be omitted, saving 1.8Mb.
Helios requires 512 Kb of host PC RAM. If there is not enough memory in your PC to run Helios, read the chapter on the I/O server in The Helios Operating System for advice on how to save memory. Helios will run on transputer processors with 1 Mb of RAM, but for compilation 2Mb or two 1Mb processors is the recommendation.
a:install a: c:
CAUTION: If this directory already exists, its contents will be overwritten. If you have an earlier version of Helios, we recommend that you rename it and delete it once you have transferred your personal files to the new system.
If the helios subdirectory is not at the root level of your drive, use a PC text editor to edit the file host.con which contains references to the helios directory.
To modify configuration files in Helios you need to use the Helios editor and to become familiar with Helios commands. If you have not used Helios or Unix before, read the tutorial entitled Getting Started to understand the basic commands. The tutorial entitled Parallel Programming provides a brief overview of programming using Helios. Detailed reference material is to be found in The Helios Operating System. If you need help do not forget to try the online help, which can answer most of your questions. For example, if you type
help me compile
the online help gives you a list of useful information about compiling programs. You do not need to know any command names to use the online help.
When you have mastered the basic skills, you can configure Helios to boot multiple processors. A brief outline is given in the section of this guide entitled Booting multiple processors. It is not compulsory to read the last two sections, which refer to the directory structure and release changes respectively, since these are explained in the Getting Started tutorial.
Many enhancements have been made to Helios and to the Helios documentation. The Helios Operating System manual should be read carefully to gain the maximum benefit from this release. The following two sections of this installation guide briefly outline the new network booting configuration files and the changes to the directory structure. The final section contains release information.
In Helios 1.3 the booting of networks has been made more flexible. This section explains how to boot multiple processors in an equivalent manner to that used in previous versions of the operating system. This involves the modification of two configuration files, namely etc/initrc and etc/nsrc, and the writing of a resource map to describe the hardware topology.
run -e /helios/bin/startns startns -r /helios/etc/n.map
run -e /helios/bin/newuser newuser guest
Helios should then be rebooted. For a comprehensive description of the new options, read the chapter entitled Networks in The Helios Operating System.
Helios refers to all directories relative to a standard place known as /helios. This name is built into certain commands which attempt to open files such as /helios/etc/help. The I/O server maps /helios to any directory on the PC. This is specified by the helios_directory entry in the host.con file. By default, this is set to /helios for the current DOS partition.
Figure 1 illustrates the complete Helios directory structure. Some directories are created when optional software packages are installed. Physical drives can be accessed by prefixing the drive name with a / symbol. For example, the command which lists the contents of drive c: is as follows:
The lib subdirectory contains library stubs and C prologue, which are required for linking. It also contains system servers such as the RAM server, and device drivers. The bin subdirectory contains all helios commands. A local/bin is provided for unsupported public domain programs and user programs. The include subdirectory contains the C header files for the system, which define all of the data structures. The users directory holds the directories of all users. Three of these (guest, root and shutdown) are predefined. Each directory contains a login and cshrc script with useful customising commands. These names correspond to the three users defined in the etc/passwd file. The guest directory has several example subdirectories which demonstrate programming under Helios. When using the CDL language, remember to set the shell variable cdl.
The etc directory holds text based configuration files and the help database. The file initrc is executed after the first processor is booted. This file starts system services such as login sessions. It also starts network booting according to resource maps and the nsrc file held in this directory. Further details are to be found in the chapter of The Helios Operating System entitled Networks. The passwd file holds lists of users with the following format: user name, password (possibly blank), user and group number, home directory and shell to be called. The file etc/motd is an optional file which is displayed on login to announce administration messages.
The following list summarises some of the major changes and enhancements which have been made to Helios version 1.3.